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The Behaviourist Approach

The Behaviourist Approach Assumptions Al behaviour is learnt from experience All behaviour occurs via learning from experiences of the environment The theory of classical conditioning assumes that we learn by association The theory of operant conditioning assumes that the law of effect explains why if behaviour is reinforced i.e. rewarded it will be repeated General [...]

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The Behaviourist Approach – Pavlov’s Dog (Link)

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The Behaviourist Approach – Positive Reinforcement (Link)

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The Cognitive Approach

Cognitive Perspective Assumptions Assumes that conscious, cognitive experience, internal processes sich as memory, perception and decision making are key to understanding people. The most appropriate methods for studying mental processes is the scientific method It is assumed that computers can provide an analogy of how the human mind works Information processing provides a model of [...]

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The Psychodynamic Approach

Psychoanalytic Perspective Key Assumptions: Assumes that a large part of out mental life operates at an unconscious level It is assumed that unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts drive behaviour The personality is made up of the id, the ego and the superego, which are in constant conflict Defence mechanisms protect individuals from anxiety producing thoughts [...]

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The Humanistic Approach

The Humanistic Approach Developed by Rogers and Maslow in the 1950s Assumptions A healthy mental attitude is dependent on taking personal responsibility, recognising the existence of free will, and striving towards personal growth and fulfilment. Individuals have a need for self actualisation. People are naturally good, with the potential for personal growth if they are provided [...]

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The Humanistic Approach – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Link)

Click on the link below to learn more about the Humanistic Approach and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Click here to view the link Generate a PDF Version (Save and Print this page)

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Reductionism

Reductionism Reductionism – the argument that we can explain behaviour and experiences by reference to only one factor, such as physiology or learning. Reductionism and determinism → closely linked, where you find one, likely to find the other. Rose (1997) – identified 3 different forms of reductionism Methodological reductionism – refers to the use of [...]

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Psychology as a Science

Definitions & Varieties of Science Humans invented science and its methods of investigations, but then humans began using the same methods but to study the mind and behaviour. 100yrs of years ago ‘science’ was fast becoming the only respectable way of obtaining ‘proper’ knowledge. Definitions Science refers to either:* the scientific method – a process [...]

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Psychology – Nature and Nurture

Nature and Nurture Nature – refers to those characteristics and abilities that that are determined by your genes. Supporters of this view = hereditarians or nativists Nurture – refers to the influences of experience and environment. A belief that all knowledge is gained through experience Supporters of this view = empiricists The debate is an [...]

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