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AS Module 1 | AQA B Psychology


What is Psychology?

What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of experience and behaviour. It’s supported by scientific research carried out by experimenters, results are then recorded, quite similar to a science experiment. Common-sense and psychology Psychology can be seen as organised common-sense. Psychology can give us a more detailed understanding of people, supported by evidence. This evidence [...]

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Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt

Wundt (1832-1920) was the first person to call himself a psychologist and he shared the conviction of other German scientists that all aspects of nature, including the human mind, could be studied scientifically, an approach summarised in his book Principles of Physiological Psychology, and the first text book in psychology. Wundt’s approach was experimental in [...]

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The Development of Psychology & Modern Psychology

The Development of Psychology & Modern Psychology Psychology has its modern roots in the thinking of the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes who argued that the mind and the body were to separate entities which interacted (dualism) The mid-ninetieth century gave rise to materialism and empirism. Material maintained that the mind was made of [...]

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Freud – The Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic Theory: Sigmund Freud While psychology was developmenting as a science, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was formulating a theory of human behaviour that would greatly affect psychology and psychiatry, and change thinking altogether. Freud began his career as a neurologist, so his work was originally firmly rooted in biology. He soon became interested in behavioural and [...]

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Rogers – The Humanistic Perspective

Rogers Focuses on the higher motivation of humans Individual subjective experience. How the individual perceives the world. Personal Agency – Individuals are motivated to achieve personal growth. Fulfil potential. Freewill Personal Growth – Awareness of feelings, motivations, informed choices and fulfil potential Holistic Approach – Looks at whole person, not just one part. E.g., memory. Introspective [...]

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Skinner and Pavlov – The Behaviourist Approach

Behaviourism The next major trend in psychology, behaviourism, followed directly from functionalism. It went further in its rejection of the special nature of mental events, denying that unobservable and unverifiable mental events were properly the subject matter of psychology. Behaviourists believed that because psychology is the study of observable behaviours, mental events – which cannot [...]

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The Cognitive Approach

Much of cognitive psychology uses an approach called information processing  information received through the senses is processed by various systems in the brain. Some system stores the information in the form of memory, and other system control behaviour. Some systems operate automatically and unconsciously, while others are fully conscious and require input from the individual. Although cognitive [...]

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The Nervous System

The nervous system is the network of all the neurons or nerve cells in the body. This system allows us to receive process and transmit information from both within and outside of the body. The nervous system has been classified into different divisions according to function. It consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and [...]

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Transmission between Neurons

Each neuron is separated from other neurons by a tiny gap called a synapse. Transmission across a synapse is chemical. The gap between one neuron and the next is called the synaptic cleft. Floating in the cleft are many calcium ions and sodium ions, charged particles and sodium. The membrane that lies before the cleft [...]

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Brain Scanning Techniques

In the 1970s, CAT scans were introduced. This contains an X-ray transmitter and detector on opposite sides of the head. X-rays are passed through the head form front to back, the ring on which the transmitter and detector is fixed upon, moves around so the head can be scanned from all angles, and then up and [...]

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